Você sabe como o coronavírus afeta a economia?

Bolsas de valores caindo ao redor do mundo, projeções de PIB cada vez menores, expectativas de lucro das empresas reduzidas e o dólar batendo novos recordes a cada dia no Brasil. O coronavírus COVID-19 tem afetado não apenas a saúde das pessoas, mas também a economia. Só na semana passada ocorreram 3 circuit breakers na B3, a bolsa de valores brasileira (o circuit breaker é como um freio de emergência: quando a queda é muito acentuada, todas as negociações são interrompidas por um tempo).

Mas não é só no Brasil que o coronavírus tem impactado diretamente a economia: no mundo inteiro vemos reflexos da preocupação e ações que são tomadas para conter seu avanço. E como a nossa economia hoje é globalizada, o impacto tende a ser sentido em todos os lugares: uma indústria que paralisa as atividades na China não vai importar matéria-prima de fornecedores estrangeiros, e também não vai enviar os produtos finalizados para as matrizes nos Estados Unidos, por exemplo, que, por sua vez, não vão exportar e revender para outros lugares (como as lojas de varejo que você encontra na internet ou na sua cidade).

Este exemplo foi muito simplificado, mas ele foi só para começar a história! Existem muitas outras maneiras que o coronavírus afeta a nossa economia. Se você quiser descobrir mais alguns, faça o exercício em inglês abaixo.

Exercise

Try to complete the text with the verbs given in parenthesis with the correct verb tense.

Coronavirus: Eight charts on how it has shaken economies

Growth could stagnate

If the economy is 1. __________ (to grow), that generally means more wealth and more new jobs. It’s measured by 2. __________ (to look) at the percentage change in gross domestic product, or the value of goods and services produced, typically over three months or a year.

The think tank 3. __________ (to forecast) growth of just 2.4% in 2020, down from 2.9% in November. It also said that a “longer lasting and more intensive” outbreak could halve growth to 1.5% in 2020 as factories suspend their activity and workers stay at home to try to contain the virus.

Global shares take a hit

Investors 4. __________ (to be) worried about the impact of the coronavirus as it spreads outside of China. Big shifts in stock markets, where shares in companies are bought and sold, can affect investments in some types of pension or individual savings accounts (Isas).

The last week of February 5. __________ (to see) the worst performance for major stock markets since the 2008 financial crisis.

Factories slowing down

China makes up a third of manufacturing globally, and is the world’s largest exporter of goods. But activity 6. __________ (to decrease) in the so-called “workshop of the world” as factories pause their operations to try to contain the spread of Covid-19.

Restrictions have affected the supply chains of big companies such as industrial equipment manufacturer JCB and carmaker Nissan. Both rely on China’s production and its 300 million migrant workers. Jaguar Land Rover even said it had flown car parts in suitcases as some factories run out of parts for vehicles.

Customers buying less

Fear of the coronavirus outbreak means that some people 7. __________ (to choose) to avoid activities that might expose them to the risk of infection, such as going out shopping.

Restaurants, car dealerships and shops have all reported a fall in customer demand.

Chinese car sales, for example, 8. __________ (to drop) by 92% during the first half of February. More carmakers, like Tesla or Geely, are now selling cars online as customers stay away from showrooms.

Apple was one tech giant who said sales had been affected by low customer demand.

Travel among hardest hit

The number of cases diagnosed 9. __________ (to increase) around the world every day. Many countries 10. __________ (to introduce) travel restrictions to try to contain the virus’s spread. For example, the UK government advises against all travel to the Hubei province in China, where the virus originated. It’s also issued special travel advice for Italy, which was the first European country to report a major surge in cases.

The travel industry has been massively impacted, with airlines cutting flights and tourists cancelling business trips and holidays.

ANSWER KEY

  1. growing
  2. looking
  3. has forecast
  4. have been
  5. saw
  6. has decreased
  7. are choosing
  8. dropped
  9. is increasing
  10. have introduced

Fonte: BBC – Coronavirus: A visual guide to the economic impact

If you are interested in this subject, I highly recommend you check the source. The charts presented in the article are very clarifying.

Escrito por Michel Rosas e publicado na coluna semanal da Exame.com. Editado para o blog da Companhia de Idiomas.

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