Estude inglês com curiosidades sobre o Valentine’s Day

Estude inglês com curiosidades sobre o Valentine's Day


O Valentine’s Day é sempre comemorado no dia 14 de fevereiro. Além de ser tradição em todo o hemisfério norte – especialmente Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Irlanda, Holanda, França, Itália, Suíça, Suécia, Dinamarca, Finlândia. Vários países da América Latina comemoram o Día del Amor y Amistad.

O dia também é de muitas comemorações em boa parte da Ásia. Na Coreia do Sul e Japão, o costume é de as mulheres presentearem os homens com flores e chocolates, enquanto em países como Singapura, Malásia, Índia e Tailândia há troca de presentes entre casais, amigos e familiares próximos. Em Taiwan o dia é conhecido como Hearts Day. Por influência dos EUA, vemos alguns brasileiros celebrarem a data, mas ainda não se compara com a adoção do Halloween como celebração no Brasil.

Há várias versões sobre a origem desta celebração. Segundo a história mais popular, a data foi escolhida porque marca o aniversário de morte de São Valentim, um santo relacionado ao amor romântico por enfrentar a proibição de casamentos na Idade Média. Quando era bispo, Valentim não obedeceu às ordens do imperador que não autorizava a celebração de casamentos durante a guerra para, supostamente, garantir melhor desempenho dos soldados. Ele continuou a unir casais apaixonados em segredo. Quando descobriram, foi preso e condenado à morte.

Há relatos de que a primeira carta de Valentine’s foi escrita na França em 1415, quando o Duque d’Orleães enviava cartas de amor à sua esposa da prisão.

Atualmente, a vila francesa chamada Valentine se transforma no local do romance entre os dias 12 e 14 de fevereiro. As casas, jardins, árvores e espaços públicos ficam decorados com cartões, rosas e pedidos de casamento. Outra tradição é a de casais plantarem muda de árvore no dia 14, representando o amor entre eles.

Agora que tal realizar um exercício em inglês que explora outras curiosidades sobre a data?


Atividade

Insert the verbs in the text by using the right verb tense in brackets. Be careful because there are some sentences in the Passive Voice:


Valentine’s Day __________ (to occur) every February 14. Across the United States and in other places around the world, candy, flowers and gifts __________ (to exchange) between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. But who (to be) this mysterious saint and where did these traditions come from? (to find) out about the history of Valentine’s Day, from the ancient Roman ritual of Lupercalia that __________ (to welcome) spring to the card-giving customs of Victorian England.

The history of Valentine’s Day – and the story of its patron saint – is __________ (to shroud) in mystery. We do* __________ (to know) that February _ long __________ (to celebrate) as a month of romance, and that St. Valentine’s Day, as we (to know) it today, __________ (to contain) vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition. But who __________ (to be) Saint Valentine, and how did he become associated with this ancient rite?

Valentine greetings __________ (to be) popular as far back as the Middle Ages, though written Valentine’s didn’t begin to appear until after 1400. The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he __________ (to imprison) in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt. (The greeting is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London, England.) Several years later, it is believed that King Henry V __________ (to hire) a writer named John Lydgate to compose a valentine note to Catherine of Valois.

In Great Britain, Valentine’s Day __________ (to begin) to be popularly __________ (to celebrate) around the 17th century. By the middle of the 18th, it (to be) common for friends and lovers of all social classes __________ (to exchange) small tokens of affection or handwritten notes, and by 1900 printed cards began to replace written letters due to improvements in printing technology. Ready-made cards were an easy way for people __________ (to express) their emotions in a time when direct expression of one’s feelings __________ (to discourage). Cheaper postage rates also __________ (to contribute) to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentine’s Day greetings.

Americans probably began exchanging hand-made valentines in the early 1700s. In the 1840s, Esther A. Howland began selling the first mass-produced valentines in America. Howland, known as the “Mother of the Valentine,” __________ (to make) elaborate creations with real lace, ribbons and colorful pictures known as “scrap.” Today, according to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated 145 million Valentine’s Day cards __________ (to send) each year, making Valentine’s Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year. Women __________ (to purchase) approximately 85 percent of all valentines.


Important information

1. To shroud = to cover, to hide

2. *O verbo auxiliar do/does, em frases afirmativas no tempo presente, e did em frases afirmativas no passado simples é usado justamente para enfatizar o verbo principal, uma substituição para este uso é o advérbio really.

3. A voz passiva é utilizada para demonstrar interesse pela pessoa ou objeto que sofre uma ação, ao invés da pessoa ou objeto que realiza a ação. Há momentos em que usamos a voz passiva porque não sabemos ou não queremos dizer quem realizou determinada ação.


Answers

Valentine’s Day occurs every February 14. Across the United States and in other places around the world, candy, flowers and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. But who is this mysterious saint and where did these traditions come from? Find out about the history of Valentine’s Day, from the ancient Roman ritual of Lupercalia that welcomed spring to the card-giving customs of Victorian England.

The history of Valentine’s Day–and the story of its patron saint–is shrouded in mystery. We do know that February has long been celebrated as a month of romance, and that St. Valentine’s Day, as we know it today, contains vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition. But who was Saint Valentine, and how did he become associated with this ancient rite?

Valentine greetings were popular as far back as the Middle Ages, though written Valentine’s didn’t begin to appear until after 1400. The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was imprisoned in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt. (The greeting is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London, England.) Several years later, it is believed that King Henry V hired a writer named John Lydgate to compose a valentine note to Catherine of Valois.

In Great Britain, Valentine’s Day began to be popularly celebrated around the 17th century. By the middle of the 18th, it was common for friends and lovers of all social classes to exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes, and by 1900 printed cards began to replace written letters due to improvements in printing technology. Ready-made cards were an easy way for people to express their emotions in a time when direct expression of one’s feelings was discouraged. Cheaper postage rates also contributed to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentine’s Day greetings.

Americans probably began exchanging hand-made valentines in the early 1700s. In the 1840s, Esther A. Howland began selling the first mass-produced valentines in America. Howland, known as the “Mother of the Valentine,” made elaborate creations with real lace, ribbons and colorful pictures known as “scrap.” Today, according to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated 145 million Valentine’s Day cards are sent each year, making Valentine’s Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year (more cards are sent at Christmas). Women purchase approximately 85 percent of all valentines.


Texto foi adaptado do artigo publicado em https://www.history.com/topics/valentines-day/history-of-valentines-day-2


Escrito por Lígia Velozo Crispino e publicado na coluna semanal de inglês da Revista Exame. Editado para o blog da Companhia de Idiomas.

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