Aprenda as diferentes origens do Dia dos Professores em inglês

Aqui no Brasil nós comemoramos o Dia dos Professores no dia 15 de outubro, mas você sabia que o dia internacional, estabelecido pela UNESCO, é o 5 de outubro?

Acontece que cada país, com sua história e cultura local, celebra esta data em um momento diferente do ano: alguns países chegam a celebrar durante um mês inteiro!

Então faça os exercícios em inglês abaixo e aprenda um pouquinho mais sobre as diferentes origens do Dia dos Professores.

VOCABULARY

Match the words to their corresponding definitions, and try to put them in the correct places in the text below.

a) compulsory (     ) act as or become a friend to someone
b) ruler (     ) a person exercising government or dominion
c) throughout (     ) express something definitely or clearly in speech or writing
d) to befriend (     ) required by law or a rule; obligatory
e) to champion (     ) encourage the development of something
f) to foster (     ) in every part
g) to state (     ) vigorously support or defend the cause of

READING COMPREHENSION

1. What happened on October 15th that later made this day be designated as Teachers’ Day in Brazil?

2. How was education during the time of San Juan Bautista de la Salle and why is he considered the patron of teachers in Colombia?

3. Why did the official day for Teachers’ Day change in Taiwan?

Argentina – 11 September

In memory of Domingo F. Sarmiento (15 February 1811 – 11 September 1888). Journalist, governor of San Juan, diplomat, senator, President of Argentina. Made primary education (1) _____, established 800 educational and military institutions including teachers’ schools, founded public libraries, developed infrastructure and (2) _____ immigration. Inspired by Horace Mann, whom he (3) _____, brought 32 American teachers to Argentina to develop the American model of universal education. The 1943 Interamerican Conference on Education, held in Panama, established 11 September as Panamerican Teacher’s Day.

Brazil – 15 October

Commemorating Emperor of Brazil Pedro I’s 15 October 1827 decree regulating elementary schools in Brazil. The celebration gained popularity (4) _____ the country, and October 15 was officially designated Teachers’ Day in 1963.

Brunei – 23 September

To commemorate the birth date of the 28th (5) _____ of Brunei, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, also known as the ‘Architect of Modern Brunei’, who amongst other things emphasized the importance of education to his subjects by introducing a policy of ‘free’ education whereby the citizens are charged very nominal fees for attending schools. This policy has been continued and extended by the current (29th) ruler.

Colombia – 15 May

This day marks the appointment of San Juan Bautista de la Salle as the patron of teachers. In 1950, Pope Pius XII granted his approval of La Salle as patron of teachers for (6) _____ the causes of modern education. The holy founder understood the education of children as the obligation of all. Usually the schools of his time (1651–1719) only accepted young people studying towards politics or diplomacy. Juan Bautista outlined the principles of free and universal education. That same year in Colombia, the President of the Republic declared that date as Teachers’ Day.

Panama – 1 December

To commemorate the birth date of Manuel José Hurtado, who is known as the father of Panamanian education because of his promotion of modern universal education through the establishment of the first public schools and teachers’ colleges in what is now known as Panama — then part of Colombia – aiming to break the vicious cycle of ignorance and poverty that afflicted the vast majority of the population. He went on to be named Director-General of Public Instruction of the State of the Isthmus.

Taiwan – 28 September

The Republic of China on Taiwan uses this day to honor teachers’ contributions to their own students and to society in general. People often make use of the day to express their gratitude to their teachers, such as paying them a visit or sending them a card. This date was chosen to commemorate the birth of Confucius, believed to be the model master educator. In 1939, the Ministry of Education established the national holiday as 27 August, the attributed birthday of Confucius. In 1952, the Executive Yuan changed it to September, (7) _____ that it was calculated to be the precise date in the Gregorian calendar. The festival celebration occurs in the temples of Confucius around the island, known as the “Grand Ceremony Dedicated to Confucius”.

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Teachers%27_Days

ANSWER KEY

VOCABULARY

Correct order: D – B – G – A – F – C – E

(1) compulsory

(2) fostered

(3) befriended

(4) throughout

(5) ruler

(6) championing

(7) stating

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Emperor of Brazil Pedro I released a decree regulating elementary schools on 15 October 1827.

2. Schools only accepted young people studying towards politics or diplomacy, and he championed the causes of modern education, outlining the principles of free and universal education.

3. Because the attributed birthday of Confucius was later calculated to be on 28 September, according to the Gregorian calendar.

Escrito por Michel Rosas para a coluna semanal da Exame.com. Adaptado para o blog Companhia de Idiomas.

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